Nubuk is derived from natural full-grain leather. The outer epidermal layer of natural leather is maintained because the fibres, or grain, are naturally very close-bonded. This gives the leather a tough and water resistant consistency, with natural insulation against the cold. In order to obtain the characteristic velvety suede effect of Nubuk leather, the natural grain is given a light sanding. This results in more breathable, supple leather with a better response to water-proofing agents but which retains the desirable characteristics of full-grain leather.